Preparing Lesson Plans: Preschool Teachers as Instructional Designers

By Nor Hashimah Hashim, Hashimah Mohd. Yunus, Tang Keow Ngang, Norlida Ahmad and Yahya Che Lah.

Published by The Design Collection

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Article: Print $US10.00
Article: Electronic $US5.00

As an instructional designer, a preschool teacher should be able to determine the current state and identify the needs of preschool children, define the end goal of instruction, and create some ‘intervention’ to assist in the teaching and learning process of preschoolers. The instructional designer, in this case the preschool teachers should know the desired learning outcomes that can be achieved using various methods. Instructional designer should be able to apply systematic methods of evaluating instructional needs and creating learning solution for the preschool children. A case study was conducted involving 197 preschool teachers in the northern region of Malaysia. They were engaged in answering questionnaire (closed and open-ended questions) which employed four Likert scales (disagree, less agree, agree, strongly agree). The questionnaire focuses on three main components on designing lesson plan: (a) the planning section, (b) the organisation of steps in teaching activities, and (c) the preparation of the teaching materials or resources. Based on the factorial analysis, these three main components were categorised into five main factors that concern preschool teachers as an instructional designer, that is (i) planning based on children’s abilities and interest; (ii) planning based on the Malaysian National Preschool Curriculum as the main reference; (iii) planning using various teaching aids and resources; (iv) planning following procedure and principle of learning and; (v) planning following procedure and principle of teaching. The research findings showed that the factor related to “planning followed procedure and principle of learning” were frequently practiced by the preschool teachers as instructional designer (mean = 3.2554). The findings also showed that most preschool teachers agreed that they were practicing all the four factors except the factor on “planning followed procedure and principle of teaching” (mean = 2.6826). The open-ended data obtained from the questionnaire support and further complement the preschool teacher problems in preparing lesson plans as an instructional designer at preschool level. The main aim of this paper is to discuss the findings of a case study concerning the preschool teachers as instructional designers in preparing their lesson plans.

Keywords: Lesson Plan, Preschool Teachers, Instructional Designer

Design Principles and Practices: An International Journal, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp.207-226. Article: Print (Spiral Bound). Article: Electronic (PDF File; 1.238MB).

Prof. Dr. Nor Hashimah Hashim

Chairperson, Bachelor of Education (Preschool Education), School Of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang, Malaysia

Nor Hashimah Hashim is an Associate Professor in the Early Childhood Edcuation at School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia. She received her MEd. and PhD at University of Leeds, United Kingdom focusing on primary education. Earlier she worked in primary and secondary schools for six and three years respectively. Currently, she is a program chairperson for BEd. Preschool Education) and teaches undergraduate programs in early childhood curriculum. Her research interests revolve around teaching and learning at preschool and primary level. Two of her current research projects funded by the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) and Department of National Unity and Integration, focuses on learning environment and instruction quality at the preschool level. She had also conducted research on reading comprehension at primary school at the national level. She has published a number of research papers and articles in national and international journals, and produced three teaching and learning modules for preschool and primary school children.

Dr. Hashimah Mohd. Yunus

Chairperson, Bachelor of Education (Science Education), School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang, Malaysia

Hashimah Mohd Yunus is a senior lecturer in the School of Educational Studies, University Sains Malaysia. She has a B.Sc (Hons) in Biology and Chemistry, a M. Ed. in Curriculum Studies and PhD in the field of Science Education from University of Warwick, United Kingdom. Her expertise is in the area of primary science education, awareness in renewable energy and energy efficiency in primary and secondary schools and teacher education. She has been Research Leader on USM short term grant and co-researcher in several other research studies in Malaysia dealing with language issues in science education and energy awareness in primary and secondary school. She is in the progress of conducting research on the language development and science inquiry for year one pupils and a research on impact study of renewable energy and energy efficiency among secondary school students and teachers in Malaysia. Hashimah has also published and co-published a few papers on research publications in journal articles and conference papers at the international level and national level. She is also being consulted on several education projects such as Chairman for the evaluation of year six primary science textbook package for DBP for usage in 2008. Reviewer of the upper secondary school biology textbook for Arah Pendidikan Company. On the international level, she has been an academic consultant to several SEAMEO-RECSAM’s courses and program since 2005.

Dr. Tang Keow Ngang

Chairperson of Bachelor of Education (Science & Arts), School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang, Malaysia

Tang Keow Ngang is a senior lecturer in School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia. She has a B. Ed. (Hons) in Malay Language and Commerce, a M. Ed and PhD in the fields of Educational Administration and Management. All the three degree, she obtained from Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia. Earlier she worked in Primary and Secondary Schools for seven and five years respectively. Currently, she has been awarded as an ASIA Fellows of the Asian Scholarship Foundation (ASF), an organization funded by a grant from the Ford Foundation. This grant is to enable her to undertake her program of study/research project on “Development of Teacher Leadership Style in Creating Special Education Classroom Culture between China and Malaysia” at College of Education, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan, China for a period of nine (9) consecutive months. She has published a number of research papers and articles in national and international journals, and produced a few research monographs and reports. Her research interests revolve around teacher leadership and collaborative management. She has been research leader on two USM short term grant and co-researcher in several research grants funded by Universiti Sains Malaysia, Centre for Malaysian Chinese Studies, Penang State Government Economic Planning Unit and Department of National Unity and Interaction.

Norlida Ahmad

Lecturer, School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang, Malaysia

Mrs. Norlida Ahmad has a Masters in TESL from the University Of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and a Bachelor in Literature from Wilmington College, Ohio, both in USA. She has been teaching English since 1987, first in secondary schools and later at university. Her research interests are in Second Language Acquisition and Teacher Education. At present she is a senior lecturer at the School of Educational Studies in University Science Malaysia. She has presented many papers in Malaysia and overseas conferences.

Assoc. Prof. Yahya Che Lah

Lecturer, School Of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang, Malaysia

Yahya Che Lah is a lecturer at School of Distance Learning in the area of teaching and learning of language. Most of his students are school teachers undertaking their undergraduate courses. Methodology and pedagogy of language teaching is his main subject. In addition, he also taught language proficiency. He was a language teacher, before he became a lecturer. He had taught in primary and secondary school. Moreover, he also had an experience for about 3 years in the secondary school as an academic administrator. His experiences enhance his knowledge about the needs and the problems in the teaching and learning language either to the teachers or to the pupils. In the tertiary level, besides teaching, he was involved in research. His research focuses on the teaching of writing and reading comprehension at the primary and lower secondary school. His recent research focus teaching process of writing. The aim of this study to observe what transpire during the classroom teaching and learning process of writing.

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