Significant changes in science and technology are the result of a complex interaction of environmental, cultural, and organizational factors. Further, we maintain that there are significant differences between Japanese and American institutions. These differences affect the innovativeness of organizations in both countries. The United States can be considered the leading innovator among industrialized nations as measured by its net exports of knowledge-intensive goods. However, the research and development (R & D) trade balance, although increasing from 1960, has recently declined. However, Japan has continued to increase its share of high-technology exports. Herein, factors are identified that affect the process of innovation in the US and Japanese organizations with suggestions for enhancing each countries innovative capability. We also consider some institutional issues affecting innovation from selected countries in Asia and Europe.
|Keywords:||Innovation, Culture, Organizational Design, Industrial Policy, Sponsorship|
Professor, Department of Management, Entrepreneurship & General Business, Frank G. Zarb School of Business, Hofstra University, Hempstead, New York, USA
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